Publication Ethics

Duties of Authors

  1. Reporting Standards:

Authors must present an accurate account of the research performed and an objective discussion of its significance. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements are unethical and unacceptable.

  1. Data Access and Retention:

Authors must provide raw data for editorial review and should be prepared to provide public access if possible and retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

  1. Originality and Plagiarism:

Authors must ensure their work is entirely original and properly cite or quote if they use the work or words of others.

  1. Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication:

Authors should not publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal. Submitting the same manuscript to multiple journals concurrently is unethical.

  1. Acknowledgment of Sources:

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have influenced their work.

  1. Authorship of the Paper:

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the study. All significant contributors should be listed as co-authors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors are included and have approved the final manuscript and agreed to its submission.

  1. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:

All authors should disclose any financial or substantive conflict of interest that might influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support must be disclosed.

  1. Fundamental Errors in Published Works:

When authors discover significant errors or inaccuracies in their published work, they must promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

  1. Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects:

If the work involves chemicals, procedures, or equipment with inherent hazards, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript.



Duties of Editors

  1. Fair Play:

Editors evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.

  1. Confidentiality:

Editors and editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.

  1. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:

Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author.

  1. Publication Decisions:

The editorial board is responsible for deciding which submitted articles should be published. The decision is guided by the validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers.

  1. Review of Manuscripts:

Editors must ensure each manuscript is initially evaluated for originality and must organize and use peer review fairly and wisely.


Duties of Reviewers

  1. Contribution to Editorial Decisions:

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through editorial communication with the author may assist the author in improving the manuscript.

  1. Promptness:

Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse themselves from the review process.

  1. Standards of Objectivity:

Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

  1. Confidentiality:

Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

  1. Disclosure and Conflict of Interest:

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

  1. Acknowledgment of Sources:

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument has been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. Reviewers should also notify the editor of any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper they are personally aware of.