A Comparative Study of English and Javanese Sound Inventories
Keywords:Sound inventories, Vowel, Consonant
This essay aims at comparing and contrasting the English and Javanese with respect to the sound inventories completed. Based on Maddiesonâ€™s research (cited in Aronoff & Ress-Miller 2003, p. 183) there are between six and 95 consonants and between three and 46 vowels in a language. While English has 24 consonants and 12 vowels (Fromkin et al. 2008, p. 216) and Javanese has 23 consonants and 6 vowels (Ager 2009; Wedhawati & Arifin 2006, p. 65).Â In sum, the sound the English and Javanese inventories are both similar and different in several respects to how their consonants and vowels are produced and where in the mouth they are produced. Additionally, by comparing two languages, it can be seen that some sounds exist in one language but does not exist in another.
Ager, S 2009, Javanese Alphabet: Aksara consonants, viewed 10 September 2009, http://www.omniglot.com/writing/javanese.htm.
Aronoff, M & Rees-Miller, J (Eds) 2008, The handbook of linguistics, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford.
Burns, A & Seidlhofer, B 2002, â€˜Speaking and Pronunciationâ€™, in N. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to applied linguistics, pp. 211-232), Oxford University Press, New York.
Dixit, R. P 1998, â€˜Tongue-Palate contact patterns during retroflex consonants /á¸/, /á¹›/, and /á¹‡/ of Hindiâ€™, in Braun (ed), Advances in phonetics: Proceedings of the International Phonetics Sciences Conference, 27-30 June 1998, Bellingham, WA, pp. 51-57.
Fromkin, V, Rodman, R., Hyams, N, Collins, P, Amberber, M, & Harvey, M 2008, An introduction to Language, 6th edn, Cengage learning, South Melbourne, Vic.
Hadiwaratama 2009, Aksara vocal dan semivokal, viewed 5 September 2009, www.ganeshana.org.
Hamann, S, & Fuch, S 2008, How do voiced retroflex stops evolve? Evidence from typology and an articulatory study, viewed 23 September 2009, http://user.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/~hamann/HamannFuchs2008.pdf.
Joglosemar n.d., Hanacaraka, viewed 10 August 2009, http://www.joglosemar.co.id/hanacaraka/hanacaraka.html.
Khatiwada, R 2007, Nepalese retroflex stops: a unique place of articulation? , viewed 23 September 2009, http://www2.ilch.uminho.pt/eventos/PaPI2007/.
Mannell, R 2008, Phonetics and Phonology: Phoneme and Allophone, viewed 12 August 2009, http://clas.mq.edu.au/phonetics/phonology/phoneme/index.html.
Nordquist, R 2009, Allophone, viewed 11 August 2009, http://grammar.about.com/od/ab/g/allophoneterm.htm.
Peter, L 2006, A course in phonetics, 5th Edn, Thomson Wadsworth, Boston.
Wedhawati & Arifin, S 2006, Tata Bahasa Jawa Mutakhir, Kanisius, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Widada 1993, Bahasa Jawa dan Etnis Bali: Telaah Struktur dan Fungsinya, viewed 9 September 2009, http://pusatbahasa.depdiknas.go.id/lamanv3/?q=detail_penelitian/1055.
Yule, G 2006, The study of language, 3rd Edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
How to Cite
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.