Intervensi behavioral berbasis sekolah pada anak selective mutism: Penerapan stimulus fading dan prompting
Keywords:selective mutism, stimulus fading, prompting, parents-school collaboration
Abstract. Children with selective mutism have persistent failure to speak in certain social situations that expect them to speak. It is can affect academic performance, social relations, and lead to the development of more serious psychological disorders. Based on these conditions, necessary to reduce the symptoms of selective mutism with an intervention program. This study used a behavioral intervention with fading and prompting in a school setting. This intervention involves the collaboration of teachers and parents. The study was conducted with a single case experimental study on subjects aged 4 years who were indicated selective mutism symptoms. An observation, interviews, and the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) used as diagnostic and examination tools. The results showed that the provision of intervention with fading and prompting stimulus techniques had a significant effect on increasing speaking and social interaction of selective mutism child.
Key words: selective mutism, stimulus fading, prompting, selective mutism, parents-school collaboration
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder 4th Ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beare, P., Torgerson, C., & Creviston, C. (2008). Increasing verbal behavior of a student who is selectively mute. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1177/1063426608317356.
Camposano, L. (2011). Silent Suffering: Children with Selective Mutism. The Professional Counselor. https://doi.org/10.15241/lc.1.1.46.
Casey, L. (2011). Promoting speech in selective mutism: Experimental Analysis, Differential Reinforcement, and Stimulus fading. â€¦ -Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis.
Cohan, S. L., Chavira, D. A., Shipon-Blum, E., Hitchcock, C., Roesch, S. C., & Stein, M. B. (2008). Refining the classification of children with selective mutism: A latent profile analysis. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410802359759.
Conn, B. M., & Coyne, L. W. (2014). Selective mutism in early childhood: Assessment and treatment of an African American preschool boy. Clinical Case Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650114522912.
Cunningham, C. E., McHolm, A. E., & Boyle, M. H. (2006). Social phobia, anxiety, oppositional behavior, social skills, and self-concept in children with specific selective mutism, generalized selective mutism, and community controls. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-006-0529-4.
Holland, M.L., Malmberg, J., & Peacock, G.G. (2017). Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Young Children. Guilford Publications.
Jackson, M. F., Allen, R. S., Boothe, A. B., Nava, M. L., & Coates, A. (2005). Innovative analyses and interventions in the treatment of selective mutism. In Clinical Case Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650103259676.
Kearney, C. A. (2010). Helping children with selective mutism and their parents: A guide for school-based professionals. In Helping children with selective mutism and their parents: A guide for school-based professionals. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780195394542.001.0001.
Kovac, L. M., & Furr, J. M. (2019). What Teachers Should Know About Selective Mutism in Early Childhood. Early Childhood Education Journal. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-018-0905-y
Martin, G. & Pear, J.J. (2003). Behavior Modification: What It Is and How To Do It 7th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Mayworm, A. M., Dowdy, E., Knights, K., & Rebelez, J. (2015). Assessment and Treatment of Selective mutism with English Language Learners. Contemporary School Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40688-014-0035-5.
McHolm, A. E., Cunningham, C. E., & Vanier, M. K. (2005). Helping your child with selective mutism: Practical steps to overcome a fear of speaking. California: New Harbinger Publication, Inc.
Mitchell, A. D., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2013). Treatment of Selective mutism: Applications in the Clinic and School Through Conjoint Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation. https://doi.org/10.1080/10474412.2013.757151.
Oerbeck, B., Johansen, J., Lundahl, K., & Kristensen, H. (2012). Selective mutism: A home-and kindergarten-based intervention for children 3-5 years: A pilot study. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104511415174.
Remschmidt, H., Poller, M., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Hennighausen, K., & Gutenbrunner, C. (2001). A follow-up study of 45 patients with elective mutism. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00007547
Ridha, A. A. (2019). Metode stimulus fading untuk menurunkan gejala selcetive mutism disorder pada anak. Jurnal Psikologi Integratif. https://doi.org/10.14421/jpsi.v7i1.1628.
Schwartz, R. H., Freedy, A. S., & Sheridan, M. J. (2006). Selective mutism: Are primary care physicians missing the silence? In Clinical Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1177/000992280604500107.
Viana, A. G., Beidel, D. C., & Rabian, B. (2009). Selective mutism: A review and integration of the last 15 years. In Clinical Psychology Review. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2008.09.009.
Zakszeski, B. N., & DuPaul, G. J. (2017). Reinforce, shape, expose, and fade: a review of treatments for selective mutism (2005â€“2015). School Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-016-9198-8.
Jurnal Spirit is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.