## Focus and Scope

The scope of Journal Union: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika is Mathematics Education which includes, but is not limited to the following topics: **Mathematics Ability, Mathematics Learning Model, Mathematics Learning Media, Curriculum Development, Assessment and Evaluation, Didactical Design Research (DDR), Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), Ethnomathematics, Research and Development (RnD), PISA Task**.

**Mathematics Ability**

Mathematics ability refers to the ability (a human construct) to obtain, to process, and to retain mathematical information (cognitive) and to solve mathematics problem (pragmatic). the scope of mathematics ability includes the following abilities: reasoning, connection, communication, representation, and problem-solving.

**Mathematics Learning Model**

A learning model is a form of learning illustrated from beginning to end, which the teacher explicitly presents. In other words, the learning model is a wrapper or frame from applying an approach, method, and learning technique. In this case, the learning model is the method used by the teacher in organizing the class in general or presenting learning materials in particular, which is a tool to achieve a goal. The learning model does not only function as a way to convey material but also functions to encourage, to reveal the growth of interest in learning, to deliver learning materials, to create a conducive learning climate, to give birth to creativity, to encourage self-assessment in learning processes and outcomes, and driving force in complementing the weaknesses of learning outcomes.

**Mathematics Learning Media**

Mathematics learning media is anything that can transmit knowledge from teachers to students in learning Mathematics. Mathematics learning media can be in the form of manipulative teaching aids or ICT-based media. **Union: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika** welcomes papers focus on the use of mathematics leraning media in mathematics learning.

**Curriculum Development**

Curriculum development is the process of planning and compiling curriculum by curriculum developers and the activities carried out so that the resulting curriculum can be used as teaching materials and references to achieve national educational goals. Curriculum development cannot be separated from various aspects that influence it, such as ways of thinking and value systems, namely moral, religious, political, cultural, and social, development processes, student needs, community needs, and educational programs' direction. **Union: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika** accepts manuscripts related to the Merdeka Belajar Curriculum and the Prototype Curriculum as long as they are related to Mathematics education.

**Assessment and Evaluation**

Assessment is a process of systematically collecting information on each component, activity, education, or learning, while evaluation is a process of giving meaning, meaning, and value to the assessment. Therefore, assessment and evaluation are an integral part of education and efforts to control the quality of education. Summative and formative assessments (summative and formative assessments) in the context of education are directed at assessing students' process and learning outcomes and improving the educational process carried out by educators in teaching students. Furthermore, evaluation is carried out based on available data and information for continuous quality improvement and quality control.

**Didactical Design Research (DDR)**

Didactical Design Research is one of the research models of Design Research. DDR (Didactical Design Research) is research that uncovers learning obstacles in the learning process and aims to anticipate and eliminate learning barriers.

**Realistic Mathematics Education (RME)**

Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) is a teaching and learning theory in mathematics education that was first introduced and developed by Freudenthal. Two of his important points of views are mathematics must be connected to reality and mathematics as human activity.

**Ethnomathematics**

Ethnomathematics is the study of the relationship between mathematics and culture. Culture gives diverse and interesting contexts in mathematics learning to be discussed. Therefore, the scope of ethnomathematics is an important part of the focus and scope of the journal.

**Research and Development (RnD)**

Educational design research is perceived as the systematic study of designing, developing and evaluating educational interventions (programs, teaching-learning strategies and materials, products, systems) as solutions to such problems. It also aims at advancing our knowledge about the characteristics of these interventions and the processes to design and develop them.

**PISA Task**

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school students' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading. PISA tasks here refers to the mathematics tasks developed to measure the mathematical literacy. It is an individual's capacity to identify and understand the role that mathematics plays in the world, to make well-founded judgements and to use and engage with mathematics in ways that meet the needs of that individual's life as a constructive, concerned and reflective citizens. A paper is eligible for the inclusion in PISA task if it provides comprehensive analysis on the development or the use effect of the task considering the appropriate content, context, and process.