Ethnomathematical studies on the Gedong Songo temple

Authors

  • Amrizal Marwan Ali Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
  • Yasin Prasetia Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.30738/union.v11i2.14428

Keywords:

Ethnomathematics, Ethnographic approach, Gedong Songo

Abstract

The lack of information about designing buildings, measuring, patterning and calculating from ancient people, makes the concept of mathematics applied by people in the past remains unknown. It is necessary to study mathematics from a cultural point of view of society. This study is carried out through a cultural approach, or what is commonly referred to as ethnomathematics. Mathematics that is used by recognized cultural groups, such as national communities, ethnic groups, labor organizations, children of particular age groups, and professional classes, is known as ethnomathematics. Finding the mathematical principles used to construct the Gedong Songo Temple in Candi Village, Bandungan, Semarang Regency, Central Java, is the goal of this study. The object of research in this case is the Gedong Songo Temple. The approach taken is a qualitative one. In this study, an ethnographic technique was used. Data collection is done by literature study and observation. This research is structured descriptively, starting from reviewing problems related to ethnomathematics, formulating problems, collecting theories, analyzing, discussing data, and making conclusions. The findings demonstrated that geometry, symmetry, periodic patterns, and ratios are among the mathematical concepts used in the construction of the Gedong Songo Temple. The findings of this study can be used to improve mathematics instruction in cultural contexts. In addition, further studies on ethnomathematics can be carried out to see more comprehensively the mathematical concepts applied to the structure of the temple building.

References

Akhtaruzzaman, M., & Shafie, A. A. (2011). Geometrical Substantiation of Phi, the Golden Ratio and the Baroque of Nature, Architecture, Design and Engineering. International Journal of Arts, 1(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.arts.20110101.01 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5923/j.arts.20110101.01

Ascher, M. (2017). Ethnomathematics: A multicultural view of mathematical ideas. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203756522

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative (4th ed.). Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River.

Damayanti, N., Adriati, I., & Ramadina, S. P. (2014). Perupaan dan Sinkronisasi Artefak Percandian Batujaya di Karawang, Jawa Barat dengan Borobudur di Jawa Tengah dan Mon-Dwarawati di Thailand [Sculpture and Synchronization of Batujaya Bath Artifacts in Karawang, West Java with Borobudur in Central Java and Mon-Dwarawati in Thailand]. Journal of Visual Art and Design, 6(2), 89–107. https://doi.org/10.5614/ITBJ.VAD.2014.6.2.2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5614/itbj.vad.2014.6.2.2

d’Ambrosio, U. (1985). Ethnomathematics and its place in the history and pedagogy of mathematics. For the Learning of Mathematics 5, No. 1, 44–48. Retrieved from https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:141770319?utm_source=wikipedia

Faiziyah, N., Khoirunnisa, M., Azizah, N. N., Nurrois, M., Prayitno, H. J., Desvian, Rustamaji, & Warsito. (2021). Ethnomathematics: Mathematics in Batik Solo [Ethnomathematics: Mathematics in Batik Solo]. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1720(1), 012013. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1720/1/012013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1720/1/012013

Gage, J. (2008). The Maths of Churches, Mosques, Synagogues and Temples. Eds) Rezo Sarhangi and Carlo Séquin, Proceedings of Bridges Leeuwarden, 195–200. Retrieved from https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:54953969?utm_source=wikipedia

Hardiarti. (2017). Etnomatematika: Aplikasi Bangun Datar Segiempat pada Candi Muaro Jambi [Ethnomathematics: Application of Quadrilateral Shapes at Muaro Jambi Temple]. AKSIOMA: Jurnal Matematika Dan Pendidikan Matematika. http://journal.upgris.ac.id/index.php/aksioma/article/view/1707/1502 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26877/aks.v8i2.1707

Indriyani, S. (2018). Eksplorasi etnomatematika pada aksara lampung [Ethnomatematics exploration of the Lampung script].Doctoral dissertation. UIN Raden Intan Lampung. Retrieved from http://repository.radenintan.ac.id/3820/

Kurniawan, W., & Hidayati, T. (2020). Ethnomathematics in Borobudur Temple and Its Relevance in Mathematics Education. Jurnal Pendidikan Progresif, 10(1), 91–104. https://doi.org/10.23960/JPP.V10.I1.202011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.23960/jpp.v10.i1.202011

Moleong, l. J. 2010. Metodologi penelitian kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Nur, R., Utami, F., Muhtadi, D., Ratnaningsih, N., & Hamid, H. (2020). Etnomatematika: Eksplorasi Candi Borobudur [Ethnomathematics: Exploration of Borobudur Temple]. JP3M (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran Matematika), 6(1), 13–26. https://jurnal.unsil.ac.id/index.php/jp3m/article/view/RAH61

Nursyeli, F., & Puspitasari, N. (2021). Studi Etnomatematika pada Candi Cangkuang Leles Garut Jawa Barat [Ethnomatematics Study on Cangkuang Leles Garut Temple, West Java]. Plusminus: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 1(2), 327–338. https://journal.institutpendidikan.ac.id/index.php/plusminus/article/view/pv1n2_11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31980/plusminus.v1i2.1265

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Prahmana, R. C. I., Yunianto, W., Rosa, M., & Orey, D. C. (2021). Ethnomathematics: Pranatamangsa system and the birth-death ceremonial in yogyakarta. Journal on Mathematics Education, 12(1), 93–112. https://doi.org/10.22342/JME.12.1.11745.93-112 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.12.1.11745.93-112

Raja, K., Velmurugan, C., & Kalaivanan, R. (2020). Existence of the golden ratio in Tanjavur Brihadeeshwarar temple. Article in Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences. https://doi.org/10.30538/oms2020.0112 DOI: https://doi.org/10.30538/oms2020.0112

Rani, V. (2018). Etnomatematika Pada Candi Ratu Boko Sebagai Pendukung Pembelajaran Matematika Realistik [Ethnomathematics at Ratu Boko Temple as a Support for Realistic Mathematics Learning]. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pendidikan. 1-18. Direktorat Pascasarjana Universitas Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa. Retrieved from https://jurnal.ustjogja.ac.id/index.php/semnasmpd/article/view/2998

Istari, R. (2013). Motif hias pada pelipit candi [Decorative motifs on the seams of the temple]. Berkala Arkeologi, 33(1), 67-78. https://doi.org/10.30883/jba.v33i1.6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.30883/jba.v33i1.6

Rukajat, A. (2018). Pendekatan penelitian kualitatif [Qualitative research approach]. Yogyakarta: Deepublish.

Sayekti, S. I., Amiuza, C. B., & Sujudwijono, N. (2014). Geometri Fraktal Pada Candi Singosari Sebagai Konsep Desain Museum Purbakala Singosari [Fractal Geometry in Singosari Temple as a Design Concept for the Singosari Archaeological Museum]. Jurnal Mahasiswa Jurusan Teknik Arsitektur, 2. Retrieved from http://arsitektur.studentjournal.ub.ac.id/index.php/jma/article/view/45

Suryasa, W., & Wirawan, I. G. N. (2020). Karma on Hinduism philosophy perspective. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 5(1), 62–67. https://doi.org/10.21744/ijllc.v5n1.850 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21744/ijllc.v5n1.850

Syafii, S., & Supatmo, S. (2019). Ornamen Kala Candi Gedongsongo dan Dieng: Studi Komparatif Jenis, Bentuk dan Struktur [The Kala Ornaments of Gedong Songo and Dieng Temples: A Comparative Study of Types, Shapes and Structures]. Imajinasi: Jurnal Seni, 13(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.15294/imajinasi.v13i1.21919

Turmuzi, M., Sudiarta, I. G. P., & Suharta, I. G. P. (2022). Systematic Literature Review: Etnomatematika Kearifan Lokal Budaya Sasak [Systematic Literature Review: Ethnomathematics of Local Wisdom of Sasak Culture]. Jurnal Cendekia: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 6(1), 397–413. https://doi.org/10.31004/CENDEKIA.V6I1.1183 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31004/cendekia.v6i1.1183

Utami, R. N. F., Muhtadi, D., Ratnaningsih, N., Sukirwan, S., & Hamid, H. (2020). Etnomatematika: eksplorasi candi borobudur [Ethnomathematics: Exploration of Borobudur Temple]. JP3M (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran Matematika), 6(1), 13-26. https://doi.org/10.37058/jp3m.v6i1.1438 DOI: https://doi.org/10.37058/jp3m.v6i1.1438

Wisjachudin F., R., Sumiyatno, S., & Darwin Siregar. (2001, August). Peranan Pertanggalan Absolut Untuk Mengetahui Komunitas Pada Era Candi Gedongsongo [The Role of Absolute Dates to Know the Community in the Gedongsongo Temple Era]. Prosiding Pertemuan dan Presentasi Ilmiah Penelitian Dasar Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Teknologi Nuklir. Retrieved from https://adoc.pub/peranan-pertanggalan-absolut-untuk-menge-tahui-komunitas-p-a.html

Yuningsih, N., Nursuprianah, I., Manfaat, B., Syekh, I., & Cirebon, N. (2021). Eksplorasi Etnomatematika pada Rancang Bangun Rumah Adat Lengkong [Ethnomatematics Exploration on the Design of Lengkong Traditional Houses]. Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika Jakarta, 3(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.21009/JRPMJ.V3I1.19517 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21009/jrpmj.v3i1.19517

Zaenuri, Z., & Dwidayanti, N. (2018). Menggali Etnomatematika: Matematika sebagai Produk Budaya [Exploring Ethnomatematics: Mathematics as a Cultural Product]. PRISMA, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika, 1, 471–476. Retrieved from https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/prisma/article/view/20136

Zed, M. (2008). Metode penelitian kepustakaan [Library research methods]. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

Downloads

Published

2023-07-31

How to Cite

Ali, A. M., & Prasetia, Y. (2023). Ethnomathematical studies on the Gedong Songo temple. Union: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika, 11(2), 242–249. https://doi.org/10.30738/union.v11i2.14428

Issue

Section

Artikel

Citation Check